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Wednesday, July 6, 2011

Biologican Poison: Animal and Plant Toxins

Earth is our home, in our own it might give us some risk in our health without noticing by our naked eye or inflicting injury or death to humans. One of the topics which give us information about this is the Biological poisons which include plants and animal toxin. In this blog you will understand some of the Plants and Animal toxins that will give some details about the toxins we might get , but before we discuss this toxins first we must know what toxin means which by the help of my friend Merriam Webster’s Medical Dictionary says that toxin is a colloidal proteinaceous poisonous substance that is a specific product of the metabolic activities of a living organ and is usually very unstable, notably toxic when introduced into the tissues, and typically capable of introducing antibody formation.
 As we now know the meaning of toxins we can now proceed to the real topic of this blog:)
 Toxins are substance that is very harmful in the body that sometimes causes death to many individuals, hence comes from a living organism. The source of these substances maybe gaseous that we might inhale, ingested by foods (vegetables, minerals) and animals which sting us that absorbed through skin penetration. These toxins works in our circulation faster even in low levels that needed susceptible test for the detection. Toxins is normally competent of inducing antibody formation

Plant Toxins

Plant toxins are toxins that produced by plants or so called phytotoxins, usually used as a protection system of the plant to an herbivorous animals particularly insects and animals.

General chemical structure:

*     Sulfur compounds
*     Lipids
*     Phenols( Poison Ivy, Poison Oak,)
*     Alkaloids(Nightshade, Jimsonweed)
*     Glycoside( Lily of the Valley, Foxglove, Oleander )
*     Phototoxins( St. John’s wort)
*     Proteins and Amino acids(Castor Bean)
*     Oxalates(Philodendron, Rhubarb)

Young children are at risk in this type of toxins because they are the ones who eat anything they have seen if their guardian or parents are not around due to their curiosity in nature and magnetism to brightly colored leaves and berries. Plant Toxins can be in attendance with fruit and vegetable. The depths and leaves of cherries, peaches, and apricots contain cyanide. Unsafe alkaloids are also present in the foliage of common tomato plants and green parts of potatoes.

List of Plant Toxins:

*     Oleander (Nerium oleander): contains in saponins, oleandroside, nerioside, woody stems and leaves.

*     Lilies: poisonous to domestic animals

*     Fox Glove (Digitalis purpurea): fatal if ingested

*     Chili pepper (Capsicum annum): also called red pepper which used as a spice when cooking at home but you might not know that cutaneous contact of this plant might give you pain or burning sensation, and when contact with the sensitive areas of the eye it will result in intense pain, tearing and conjunctivitis. That’s why other uses chili pepper spray as their defense mechanism in people that mean harm.

*     Holly ( Ilex spp.):this is a colorful plant that attracts children during winter months, these might cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal cramping and diarrhea. Medication is not really necessary because this require only the use of fluid replacement or general supportive care.

*     Philodendron ( Philodendron spp): also known as Paylor Ivy or Panda Plant that causes irritation of the mouth and mild dermatitis.

*     Pokeweed ( Phytolacca americana): frequently used in tea and salad, which severely irritating to the gastrointestinal tract disturbances such as cramping, vomiting and diarrhea which might be severe. In this plant it is resolve in 24 hours.

*     Poison Ivy, Poison Oak and Sumac(Toxicondendron spp.):common cause of allergic dermatitis and blistery itching rash develops within 36 hours after exposure. Using antihistamine and corticosteroids is the treatment for this toxin.

*     Poppy (Papaver spp.): it is found in many old gardens and close by water areas. These are generally tall annuals with large red, white or yellow flower shaped like cups. Its toxin occurs in ingesting the unripe seed capsules and illicit use of opium.

Animal Toxin

          Group that practically all toxins is produce by animals either use for their offensive of defensive purposes.

*     Spider Venoms: When I here the word spider it always comes in my mind the phobia that I have when I encounter the spider but then starting to think for the reasons why I do hate this animal, maybe Spiderman hate me that much because if I see spider I just scream all over that day and talking about the spider that I encounter. Venoms of the black widow spider are generally poisonous because they are neurotoxin and envenomations result in that syndrome that develops after 1-2 hours after being bitten which is referred to as latrodectism. This is characterized by:
·        Nausea
·        Pain first localized at the lymph nodes
·        Abdominal muscle rigidity
·        Muscle contraction and cramps
·        Hypertension
·        Transient tachycardia
·        Bradycardia
·        Profuse sweating
·        Oliguria

*     Scorpions: this is commonly neurotoxic and interferes with neurotransmission. Although not all species of the scorpions are harmful it is advise to stay away to them when seen in the environment because not all people are educated enough to know if the scorpion is poisonous or not. Their stings produce pain, swelling or numbness. Buthidae Family is dangerous to humans.

*     Hymenopterans (Honey bee,Velvent ant, Paper wasp, yellow jacket, Harvester ants): These insect stings can produce painful and local tissue injury but single sting of this insect can’t affect or produce systemic toxicity. But in case that the person is allergic to the sting of this insect it is a life-threatening anaphylactic response coming from the patient and might cause death if not prevented.

*     Cnidarians(jellyfish, hydroids, corals, anemones):They are referred to as polyps if they are attached in a free-swimming state,there venom is nematocyst that contains a coiled thread- like structure with a skin-piercing barb at the end. Even if they are dead they are able to discharge upon chemical or mechanical stimulation.

*     Mollusks(Hapalochlaena lunalata and Hapalochlaena maculosa):it is a painlessly that a human can dying without them noticing within 5 minutes with the paralytic neuromuscular venom.

Shellfish poisoning is classified as:
Ø  Amnesic shellfish poisoning
Ø  Diarrheic shellfish poisoning
Ø  Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning
Ø  Paralytic shellfish poisoning
*     Amphibians(Dendrobates and Phyllobates):these frogs are referred to as poison dart or poison arrow frogs but genus Phyllobates gives the extremely neurotoxin, batrachotoxin, this result to paralyzing the prey.

*     Reptiles(Snakes): Most people are scared of snakes but snakes do also shun as when they feel that someone is around them because they reserve there predation and defense for their prey.
There are 6 family:
Ø  Elapidae(cobras,kraits,mambas and coral snakes)
Ø  Hydrphiidae(sea snakes)
Ø  Laticaudidae(sea kraits)
Ø  Viperidae(Old world vipers and adders)
Ø  Colubridae(boomslang and keelback)
Ø  Crotalidae(rattlesnakes,water moccasins,copperheads,and bushmasters)
Common Snake Venom Enzymes and Their Effects
Decrease blood pressure, interferes with cardiac function
Digest collagen
Increasing viscocity of connective tissues by increasing tissue permeability related to edema
Membrane breakdown
Causes paralysis

Monday, June 13, 2011

Clinical Chemistry08-C

Anterior Pituitary

What is anterior pituitary gland I say?
Anterior pituitary is my topic for today
It is also called adenopophysis
The out pocketing of the primitive buccal epitheliums it’s origins

It has 7 distinct hormones that secretes cells
Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)  is my first scene
Its stimulates the adrenal gland formation
ACTH is also known ascorticotrophin.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is my secondhormone
 It stimulates ovulation and the development of the corpus luteum in the female
The production of testosterone by the interstitial cells of the testis in the male
 That helps our body everyday.

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
 is the third place I’ve seen
Thyrotrophs a type of basophil that secretes thyrotropin
This secretes its own hormone that I recall
Thyrotrophin is what they also call.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (
is my fourth hormone
FSH stimulates the maturation of ovarian follicle
FSH is also critical for sperm production
Support many aspects of sperm cell maturation.

Prolactin (PRL) is my fifth
A single-chain protein hormone closely related to growth hormone
It is secreted by so-called lactotrophs
most prominently various immune cells

Growth Hormone is my sixth hormones (GH)
A protein hormone of about 190 amino acids
Secreted by cells called somatotrophs
 That control several complex physiologic processes

Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH) is my lasts
Exact role in humans unknown, but increases skin pigmentation in amphibians.
 It is also known as intermedin 
Skin cells that contain the black pigment, melanin.

Hope you just understood
What I just reviewed
Which I just did
 For you to read

Monday, May 16, 2011

Clinical Chemistry08-C

Clinical Chemistry III-Endocrinology, Toxicology and Drug Testing

Endocrinology is a part of our physiologic regulatory system, the collection of hormones, proteins and other components and other processes form the endocrine system. The Endocrine System is consists of many ductless glands that produce highly active chemical regulators called "hormone.

Functions of Hormones

1.  It is a substances which can be secreted and produced into the blood by an tissue or an organ.
2. It has a target tissue which is located away from the site of hormones.
3. It promote production and release certain other hormones.
4. Regulate energy production

Toxicology is a study of poisonous toxic drugs. The substance that when taken in sufficient quantity which causes death is toxicant. Toxicity is well defined as"super or extremely" toxic.

Factors that Influence Toxicity

1. Physical State and Solubility
2. Exposure of different toxicant(route, exposure)
3. Toxicokinetics of the toxicant by metabolic processes.

Drug Testing
- it is used to confirm drugs which found in patients serum or urine etc. using drug- screening method.Gas Chromatography is normally used to confirm drugs detected by screening techniques. 

Kinds of Drug Testing
1.Urine Drug Testing
2. Hair Drug Testing
3.Oral/Saliva Drug Testing
4. Surface Drug Detection Wipes